Diplomatic Crossroads: Understanding Pakistan-U.S. Relations and the Kashmir Conflict


  • Anees ur Rashid Hashmi Research Associate, Institute of Kashmir Studies, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad.
  • Noreen Iqbal Swati PhD Scholar, Department of International Relations, Minhaj University Lahore.


After just sixty six days following its declaration of independence, Pakistan exhibited a determined commitment to establishing broad-based, ideological relations encompassing socioeconomic development, infrastructure, energy, investments, military assistance, and arm trade. This collaboration spanned from 1947 until the drawdown of United States and NATO forces from Afghanistan. The depth of this partnership evolved significantly during the Cold War, prompting Pakistan's pursuit of inclusion in SEATO and CENTO, aligning itself with the United States to safeguard American interests. In the broader context of U.S. involvement, Pakistan played a mediating role between the United States and China in the 1960s. The United States, in turn, invested in Pakistan's socioeconomic development and infrastructure upgrades, driven by a convergence of interests in regional and strategic issues. These ties further solidified in the aftermath of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, leading to the eventual withdrawal of the USSR from Afghanistan and its subsequent dissolution into Russia. Pakistan's alignment with the United States was primarily driven by its role as an anti-Indian force, aiming to successfully resolve the Kashmir dispute and deter Indian influence, backed by U.S. support. However, despite Pakistan's expectations, the United States did not actively contribute to Pakistan's quest for independence, stability, regional security, or increased economic influence. The U.S. approach seemingly benefited from an unstable, frustrated, and insecure Pakistan, leveraging these conditions to fulfill its strategic objectives and regional hegemony. This analysis focuses on the chronological evolution of the relationship, exploring the fluctuations in the prospects of the Kashmir issue.




How to Cite

Anees ur Rashid Hashmi, & Noreen Iqbal Swati. (2024). Diplomatic Crossroads: Understanding Pakistan-U.S. Relations and the Kashmir Conflict. International Journal of Kashmir Studies, 5(2). Retrieved from http://ojs.kprijk.org/index.php/openjournalsystem/article/view/135